In my view, all factors that cause sex differences need to be atypical sex differentiation in human in Laval in a theory of sexual differentiation, because even transient sex differences are sexually differentiated and controlled by inherent sex differences in the genome.
A child with CAH does not have a specific enzyme that the body needs to make the hormones cortisol and aldosterone. Male Female. The first genes involved in the cascade of differentiation can differ between taxa and even between closely related species. Y genetic variation and phenotypic diversity in health and disease.
Sex may also be difficult because the vagina is shorter than normal. Gender, typically described in terms of masculinity and femininity, is a social construction that varies across different cultures and over time.
A great deal of further work is needed to clarify the separate and interacting effects of multiple sex-biasing mechanisms highlighted in the theory of sexual differentiation. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. In this manner, phenotypes that are balanced in the two sexes can diverge under specific disease or environmental conditions.
X chromosome regulation: diverse patterns in development, tissues and disease. About Us. It is sometimes possible to take eggs from the individual to make a surrogate pregnant.
A human fetus does not develop its external sexual organs until seven weeks after fertilization. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Ovum Oviposition Oviparity Ovoviviparity Vivipary. The levels in boys peaked at Tanner stage 2 and decreased by Tanner stage 5.
Retrieved 2 October Some behavioral changes probably result from the direct effects of gonadal hormones acting directly on the brain.
BMC Genomics. Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome 45X or 45Y sex monosomies and some with three or more sex chromosomes 47XXX, 47XYY or 47XXY, etc.
In birds, thanks to research on Gallus gallus domesticus , it has been shown that determination of sex is likely cell-autonomous, i. Indeed, when multiple sex-biasing factors all influence the same emergent sex difference in physiology and disease, the testing conditions may determine which of the factors appears most important.
Oxford: Oxford University Press; Because sex-biasing factors androgens, estrogens, etc.